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technical risks: salt accumulation and cross-connection
financial and economic risks: incontestable business case
and regulatory pricing policy.
What does this mean for project risk
The research findings highlight the need for improved project risk
management practices that address the range of critical risk factors,
in addition to the well-established consideration of public health
risks. Through practice-oriented case studies, an integrated project
assessment and risk management framework was developed
for residential recycled water schemes. The three key areas of
prioritisation for project risk management were identified as:
organisational and stakeholder risk management: early
engagement and collaboration; alignment of project objectives;
allocation of benefit, cost and risk between stakeholders
robust data collection, management and dissemination
practices: improved processes for capturing benefit, cost and
risk; performing uncertainty analysis; and enabling informed
and consistent economic evaluation
development of competencies in both project
management and change management: contingency
planning and enhanced attention to the human and behavioural
aspects of project management.
The integrated project assessment and risk management
framework provides purposeful measures for managing the
critical risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled
water schemes. While the integrated framework will not solve the
immediate challenge of demonstrating an incontestable business
case for residential recycled water schemes, it provides an
informed starting point. Improved organisational and stakeholder
risk management; robust data collection, management and
dissemination practices; and the procurement of competencies in
change management, will significantly aid progress towards the
development of a robust, transparent and incontestable business
case for residential recycled water schemes.
The University of Queensland’s UQR!SK Group, in collaboration
with the Advanced Water Management Centre and the Water-
Energy-Carbon Group, is researching critical risks to the long-term
viability of infrastructure projects. The research aims to develop
improved project risk management practices required to support
effective infrastructure investment decisions and to reduce the
volume of stranded assets.
This research study was kindly supported by the Commonwealth of
Australia through the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive
1 The University of Queensland , Advanced Water Management
2 Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities
3 The University of Queensland , School of Chemical Engineering
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Cheung, E. and Chan, A.P .C . (2011). ‘Risk Factors of Public-Private
Partnership Projects in China: Comparison between the Water,
Power, and Transportation Sectors’, Journal of Urban Planning and
Development 137(4), 409–415.
Commonwealth of Australia (2010). ‘Empowering change: fostering
innovation in the Australian public service’, Australian Government.
Holburn, G.L .F. (2012). ‘Assessing and managing regulatory risk in
renewable energy: Contrasts between Canada and the United States,
Energy Policy 45’, 654–665.
Institute for Sustainable Futures (2013). ‘Matching risk to treatment;
Building Industry Capability to Make Recycled Water Investment Decisions’,
Prepared by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology,
Sydney for the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence.
Luis, A., Lickorish, F. and Pollard, S. (2015). ‘Assessing interdependent
operational, tactical and strategic risks for improved utility master
plans’, Water Res 74, 213–226.
Marsden Jacob Associates (2013). ‘Economic viability of recycled
water schemes’, Prepared by Marsden Jacob Associates for
the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, Brisbane,
West, C., Kenway, S., Hassall, M. and Yuan, Z. (2016). ‘Why do
residential recycled water schemes fail? A comprehensive review of
risk factors and impact on objectives’, Water Res 102, 271–281.
West, C., Kenway, S., Hassall, M. and Yuan, Z. (2017). ‘Expert opinion
on risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water
schemes: An Australian study’, Water Res 120, 133–145.
World Economic Forum (2015). ‘Strategic Infrastructure: Mitigation
of Political & Regulatory Risk in Infrastructure Projects’, Prepared in
collaboration with The Boston Consulting Group, Geneva, Switzerland.
Recycled water schemes have been implemented in residential
developments to contribute to sustainable urban development
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